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Arthur Shilov
Arthur Shilov

Elena's Life

A major difficulty of this study is the heterogeneity of the included studies. First, the heterogeneity is already given by the study population, the different interventions regarding chronic pain, and the heterogeneity for the prognostic factors within the same domain. With the intention of capturing dimensions of the same construct, the grouping of the domains was done with experts from the field and measurement properties that were considered too inaccurate were not included in the analyses [18]. Still, the sources of heterogeneity especially regarding the different statistical analyses prevented the authors from conducting meta-analyses, as the pooling would not be justifiable, and the results would not be interpretable. Since all studies in this review examined different combinations of potential predictors, it was not surprising that conflicting results were shown, for pain intensity, emotional distress or self-reported physical functioning. Moreover, not many studies report the effect sizes of the estimates in order to see if clinical significance was reached, making it difficult to interpret the results beyond statistical significance. In this study, only pretreatment assessments, that is, measures at baseline, were used as prognostic factors to answer the rational of our study, that means that we cannot take into account any influencing factors beyond baseline. However, there are other individual factors that could have affected hrQoL beyond pain rehabilitation (e.g., changes in life circumstances) and should be addressed in future studies. At large, our included studies provided data solely at baseline.

Elena's Life

The motif found by the analysis of regions upstream of TSSs detected only in Nod is highly similar to RpoN-dependent promoters (Fig. 4b and f), which are characteristic for many nitrogen fixation genes [33, 66]. Thus our results are consistent with the important role of RpoN (σ54) for nitrogen fixation and life inside the nodule [27].

Sea anemones have developed various strategies for interspecific interaction with other organisms and their own ability to obtain food, due to their coevolutionary history, ranging from mutualistic (e.g. clownfish, crustaceans, etc.) and symbiotic associations (zooxanthellae or zoochlorellae) to depredation (e.g. sea slug). This study aims to record some observations on feeding habits and interspecific interactions of Actinostella flosculifera (Le Sueur, 1817) in the locality of Pedra da Sereia in Vila Velha, Espírito Santo, Brazil, and to describe the hunting strategy of the sea slug Spurilla braziliana MacFarland, 1909 and the escape strategy of A. flosculifera. We found that the habitat of A. flosculifera is characterized by shallow pools 10 cm deep at low tides, and this functions as a trap for many organisms and some biowaste (e.g. bones or fish drifting in from nearby populations) that fall into the oral disc. This is the first report of S. braziliana predating on A. flosculifera. We also report interspecific relationships between A. flosculifera with four species of crustaceans: Omalacantha bicornuta (Latreille, 1825), Menippe cf. nodifrons Stimpson, 1859, Alpheus cf. angulosus McClure, 2002, and Alpheus cf. carlae Anker, 2012. 041b061a72


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