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Anyone with a strong back can stack up a bunch of blocks and build a pretty stone retaining wall. But it takes skill and planning to construct an attractive wall that can also handle immense pressure, shrug off the forces of gravity, stand for decades and laugh in the face of Mother Nature.
Joe Blakeborough (right) owns and operates Blakeborough Hardscapes in Prior Lake, MN, with the assistance of his younger brother, Jake (left). They run multiple crews that specialize in block and boulder retaining walls, paver projects, outdoor living spaces and other services.
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Note: This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device, pursuant to part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential installation. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures:
INVEST IN R&D, REVITALIZE MANUFACTURING AND SMALL BUSINESSES, AND TRAIN AMERICANS FOR THE JOBS OF THE FUTUREHalf the jobs in our high growth, high wage sectors are concentrated in just 41 counties, locking millions of Americans out of a shot at a middle-class job. President Biden believes that, even in the face of automation and globalization, America can and must retain well-paid union jobs and create more of them all across the country. U.S. manufacturing was the Arsenal of Democracy in World War II and must be part of the Arsenal of American Prosperity today, helping fuel an economic recovery for working families. From the invention of the semiconductor to the creation of the Internet, new engines of economic growth have emerged due to public investments that support research, commercialization, and strong supply chains. President Biden is calling on Congress to make smart investments in research and development, manufacturing and regional economic development, and in workforce development to give our workers and companies the tools and training they need to compete on the global stage. Specifically, President Biden is calling on Congress to:
Contraction joints are typically installed with jointing tools while the concrete is still plastic or by sawing after the concrete has been finished with either a wet-cut saw or more commonly, an early-entry dry-cut saw. For either method, follow these jointing rules to minimize the risk of random or out-of-joint cracking.
Rule #1: Panels formed by contraction joints should be as square as possible. The joint layout should divide a large slab into relatively small, square shaped panels. Avoid long and narrow panels, L-shaped and T-shape panels. The long side should never be larger than 1-1/2 times the short side. For better crack control, limit the length of the long side to 1-1/4 times the short side (Fig.2).
Rule #2: Contraction joints should be continuous, not staggered or offset. Due to stress concentrations that occur where joints (i.e., cracks) terminate, cracking will continue into the unjointed concrete. If discontinuous joints cannot be avoided, insert two or three #4 x 3 feet reinforcing bars in the next slab to intercept the crack that will grow from the discontinuous joint (Fig. 3). Use reinforcing chairs to hold the bars in place in the top 1/3 of the slab.
Rule #4: Install contraction joints at locations where slabs typically crack. Implementing this rule takes experience or inspection of existing flatwork. When walking around town, inspect concrete slabs for cracking. With time, a better understanding of typical crack locations will become apparent. For example, place a contraction joint about three feet from the end of a triangular-shaped slab because that is the location where cracks typically occurs (Fig. 5).
Historically, the maximum recommended distance or spacing in feet between joints has been two to three times the slab thickness in inches. For a 6 in. thick slab, this recommendation yields a maximum joint spacing between 12 and 18 ft. In general, the two to three times the slab thickness recommendation has produced acceptable results if some panel cracking is acceptable. In fact, up to three percent of floor slab panels formed by a combination of saw cutting and construction joints may crack at locations other than the contraction joints.
Rule #5: For better crack control keep the maximum distance between joints in feet at 2 to 2.5 times the slab thickness in inches. For a 6 in. thick slab, the maximum joint spacing should be limited to 12 to 15 ft. Exceeding a joint spacing of 15 ft. for a 6 in. thick slab will increase the potential for random or out-of-joint cracking. In general, reducing the joint spacing or panel size reduces the risk of random cracking.
Also, reducing joint spacings will reduce crack widths within contraction joints which increases the aggregate interlock. Increasing aggregate interlock improves the load transfer capacity and helps maintain better vertical alignment across joints.
How to Evaluate & Troubleshoot Concrete Cracks - Cracks may represent the total extent of damage or the first signs of serious trouble. Some recommendations for troubleshooting concrete cracks prior to designing or performing repairs.
Contraction joints must be deep enough to ensure they are truly weakened planes that crack before random or out-of-joint cracking occurs. If weakened planes or thin slab sections other than the contraction joints exist, random cracking may occur.
Rule #8: For wet-cut sawcut joints, depth of the contraction joint should be 1/4 the slab thickness or a minimum of 1 in. To ensure joint activation or cracking, sometimes a sawcut depth of 1/3 the slab thickness is specified. However, there will be less aggregate interlock with a deeper joint. The depth tolerance for sawcut joints is 1/4 in.
Rule #9: For joints installed with an early-entry dry-cut saw, joint depth should be 1-1/4 in. with a 1/4 in. tolerance for slabs with thicknesses up to 9 in. For thicker slabs, the saw cut depth should increase to ensure joint activation. Also, saw cut depths are typically increased for fiber reinforced slabs. Fibers increase the tensile capacity of the uncut concrete beneath saw cuts so deeper saw cuts are typically required to create a weakened plane. For fiber reinforced slabs, contact the fiber technical representative for recommended saw cut depths to insure joint activation.
In addition to depth of contraction joints, saw cut timing is critical to minimize random cracking. In general, saw cut joints should be installed as soon as the concrete is sufficiently hard to resist tearing and raveling and before random cracking occurs.
Early-entry dry-cut saws are more popular because joints can be installed sooner (one to four hours after finishing) than joints installed with wet-cut saws (four to 12 hours after finishing). Early-entry dry-cut saws allow the installation of the contraction joints before the concrete starts to cool and before shrinkage stresses become too large or exceed the tensile capacity of the concrete.
Rule #10: Start saw cutting as soon as joint raveling (loss of aggregate particles) no longer occurs. However, some minor edge raveling is acceptable to ensure joints are installed before the concrete shrinkage stresses become too large.